Apocalypse for whites • XXIII

by Evropa Soberana

 
Consequences of the Palestinian revolt

The revolt had paramount consequences both for Rome and for Jewry. To begin with, the Roman losses were such that, in addition to Hadrian’s refusing to say in the military offices to the Senate that everything was going well, he was the only Roman leader in history who, after a great victory, refused to return to Rome celebrating a triumph. Titus Vespasianus had only rejected a crown of laurels in his day; Hadrian took it to the next step.

However, if the Roman losses were considerable, the Jewish losses were huge. According to Cassius Dio, 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 cities and 985 Jewish villages were completely destroyed—and they were not rebuilt—and hundreds of thousands of Jews sold as slaves throughout the Empire.

It is not surprising that the Talmud called this process ‘the war of extermination’, and that it even made outrageous statements to mythologize the conflict, such as ‘Sixteen million Jews were wrapped in parchments and burned alive by the Romans’ (Gittin, 58-A). The Jews, in any case, were definitively deprived of the will to rise against Rome by force of arms. On the other hand the Jewish threat, which had caused so many headaches to Rome, was going to increase throughout the Mediterranean due to the greater extension of the Diaspora and the ideal breeding ground that this meant for the expansion of another anti-Roman rebellion: Christianity.

The conditions of the defeat imposed on the Jews were even harsher than the triumph of Titus in the year 70. As measures against the Jewish religion, Hadrian prohibited the Jewish courts, the meetings in synagogues, the Jewish calendar, the study of the religious writings and Judaism itself as a religion! He executed numerous rabbis and burned masses of sacred scrolls at a ceremony on the Temple Mount. He tried to eradicate the very Jewish identity and Judaism itself, sending them into exile, enslaving them and dispersing them away from Judea. This persecution against all forms of Jewish religiosity, including Christianity, would continue until the death of the emperor in 138.

Furthermore, in another attempt to obliterate Jewish identity and dismantle its centre of power, the eastern provinces were restructured, forming three Syrian provinces: Syria Palestina (named in honour of the Philistines: a people of European origin and enemies of Jewry who had inhabited the area); Phoenicia under Roman rule and Coele-Syria.

In the new territorial order decreed by Hadrian, Judea became Syria Palestina, and Jerusalem was turned into Aelia Capitolina: a Greek and Roman city in which the Jews were proscribed. The three Syrias form the Levant: an extremely active and conflictive strip in history, to this day. From there came the Neolithic, the Phoenicians, Judaism and Christianity, and practically all the civilizations of antiquity, creating an ethnic chaos that always ended up in conflicts. Centuries later, these areas would see the establishment of European Crusader States.

As for the city of Jerusalem, Hadrian carried out with it the plans that had unleashed the revolt: the Jewish capital was demolished and destroyed, and the Romans ploughed over the ruins to symbolize its ‘purification’ and its return to the earth. Hadrian finally built the projected Aelia Capitolina over the ruins, introducing a new urban planning, so that even today the old city of Jerusalem coincides with the one built by the Romans.

In the centre of the city a forum was established, which contained a temple dedicated to Venus. In the place of the temple Hadrian had two statues erected, one of Jupiter and another of himself, although he respected the Wailing Wall.

Also, next to Golgotha, where Jesus was crucified, Hadrian placed a statue of Aphrodite. This was intended to symbolize the triumph of Rome over Orthodox Judaism and over Christianity, considered a Jewish sect like so many: another sect that in Rome was persecuted without distinguishing it from official Judaism. For the Greeks and Romans, the statues of their gods were representatives of the divine, solar, luminous and Olympic spirit on earth, while for the Jews, including the Christians, nothing stirred their stomach more than a naked, strong statue, beautiful, of Nordic features and invincible aspect.

To top off the de-Judaization of the city, Hadrian prohibited any Jew from settling in Aelia Capitolina, on pain of death. (This law would only be revoked two centuries later by Constantine, the first Christian emperor.)

Apocalypse for whites • XXI

by Evropa Soberana

 

Second Jewish-Roman War:
The Rebellion of the Diaspora or Kitos War

‘The Jews, overwhelmed by a spirit of rebellion, rise up against their Greek fellow citizens’.

— Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History

 
This section will deal with the Jewish revenge on the Greeks and Romans for the destruction of the Second Temple. While Judea is still exhausted and under a heavy military occupation, we will see an attempt to establish ‘communes’ or Jewish states abroad, starting with secession in Cyprus, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Cyrenaica. The constitution of these Jewish territories happened to exterminate the local Greek communities.

The First Jewish-Roman War made it very clear that the Jewry, under the ‘coexistence’ with the Greeks and the authority of the Romans, had absolutely no chance of prospering or reaching levels of power as they did in the past in Egypt, Babylon and Persia.

The ‘ghettoized’ situation of the Jews submitted to Rome contrasted radically with that of the Jews who, in Mesopotamia, were subjects of the Parthian Empire. There existed many ancient Jewish communities, especially in Babylon and Susa, who saw themselves as prosperous, rich, powerful and with a long tradition. They had enjoyed ample freedom for six centuries, and they were horrified by the situation of their coreligionists within the Roman Empire.

Therefore, it is not surprising that the ‘international Jewry’ unconditionally supported the Parthian Empire during this time, partly because it treated them much better and partly because it was the only really serious enemy that lurked the borders of the Roman Empire in the East, therefore they were the only power capable of liberating Jerusalem. After all, the Parthians were the ones who killed the hated looter Crassus during the Battle of Carrhae, and if the Romans were anti-Jewish and the Parthians were enemies of the Romans, the opportunist strategy of the moment considered the Parthian Empire as a pro-Jewish regime. At this time, nothing would have pleased the Jewry more than a military campaign that conquered Judea, Syria, Asia Minor in general and, if possible, Egypt, as the Persians had done before.

In 113, Trajan, who admired Alexander the Great, was about to start a series of campaigns against the Parthian Empire, with the aim of conquering Mesopotamia. To carry out such an action, he concentrated troops on the eastern borders, at the expense of leaving many more western places unguarded. Knowing the conflict in the province of Judea, Trajan forbade the Jews to study the Torah and observe the Shabbat, which, in practice, did nothing but irritate the Jewry.

Bust of Trajan in 108 CE, in the Museum of Art History in Vienna, Austria. Trajan, the first emperor of Hispanic origin, had the honour of having ruled the Roman Empire when its borders were most extensive. Under his reign, Mesopotamia was annexed, but soon it was to be clear that every step taken by Rome towards the East would encounter as a reaction an uprising of the Jewish quarter.

In 115, the Roman army conquered all of Mesopotamia, including towns that were important Jewish centres. Throughout Mesopotamia the Jews, horrified to see themselves falling into the hands of their mortal enemies, aligned themselves with the Parthians and fought the Romans with ferocity. This open hostility, which was soon heard throughout the Empire, caused a wave of indignation and provided the perfect excuse for the Greek ethnic communities of the provinces of Cyrenaica (current coast of Libya) and Cyprus, with strong anti-Jewish tradition, to start riots against the ghettos, taking advantage of the absence of the Roman legions, which could have appeased the situation.

Several Jewish extremist leaders again preached agitation against Rome, proclaiming the end of the Empire, travelling through all the Roman provinces of Asia Minor and North Africa and exhorting local Jewries to rise up and fight against European occupation. The Jews, already angered by the disturbances with the Greek population, took advantage of the absence of Roman soldiers to begin, that same year, a bloody insurrection.

The rebellion began in Cyrenaica, led by Lukuas, self-proclaimed messiah. The Jews, in a swift stroke of hand reminiscent of their rebellion in Jerusalem half a century earlier, attacked Greek neighbourhoods and villages, destroyed Greek statues and temples dedicated to Jupiter, Artemis, Isis and Apollo, and also numerous Roman official buildings. (These actions were a mere foreshadowing of what Christians would later do on a massive scale and throughout the Empire.) The famous Roman historian Cassius Dio, in his Roman History, describes the terrible massacre that was unleashed, referring to Lukuas as ‘Andreas’, probably his Greco-Roman name.

At that time, the Jews who lived in Cyrenaica, having as captain one Andreas, killed all the Greeks and Romans. They ate their flesh and entrails, bathed in their blood and dressed in their skins. They killed many of them with extreme cruelty, tearing them from above head down the middle of their bodies; they threw some to the beasts while others forced them to fight among themselves, to such an extent that they took 220,000 to death. Cassius Dio also tells us how from their intestines they made belts, and anointed themselves with their blood. These testimonies, although perhaps should not be taken literally, are certainly interesting to see the negative image that the Jewry had in Europe, as an odious and misanthropic people.

Also noteworthy is the character of ethnic cleansing implicit in Jewish actions in Cyrenaica: let us think that, at that time when it was much less populated than now, 200,000 dead (although it may be an exaggerated number) was a monstrous figure; to such an extent that, according to Eusebius, Libya was totally depopulated and Rome had to found new colonies there to recover the population.

After the genocide in Cyrenaica, the Lukuas masses went to an unguarded city that had long been the world centre of wisdom and also of anti-Judaism: Alexandria. There they set fire to numerous Greek neighbourhoods, destroyed pagan temples and desecrated Pompey’s tomb. But this Rebellion of the Diaspora was not limited only to North Africa. Jewish terrorism in Cyrenaica and Alexandria had emboldened Jews throughout the Mediterranean, who, seeing the absence of Roman soldiers, felt the call of the uprising against Rome.

While Trajan was already in the Persian Gulf struggling against the Parthians, crowds of Jews, fanatized by the rabbis, rose up in Rhodes, Sicily, Syria, Judea, Mesopotamia and the rest of North Africa to carry out the ethnic cleansing against European populations. In Cyprus, the worst massacre of the entire rebellion took place: 240,000 Europeans were massacred and the capital of the island, Salamis, was completely razed, according to Cassius Dio. A similar cruelty was shown in Egypt and on the island of Cyprus under one Artemion, the chief of barbarism. In Cyprus they massacred another two hundred and forty thousand people, so they could no longer set foot on the island.

To quell the rebellion in Cyprus, Syria and the newly conquered territories of Mesopotamia, Trajan sent the Legio VII Claudia under the orders of a Berber prince, General Lusius Quietus. The repression of Lusius Quietus in Mesopotamia was so ruthless that the rabbis in that place forbade the study of Greek literature and eliminated the custom of brides adorning themselves with garlands on their wedding day.

In Cyprus, Lusius Quietus exterminated the entire Jewish population of the island and prohibited, under penalty of death, that no Jew step on Cyprus. Even if he was a castaway who appeared on a beach, the Jew should be executed on the spot. These actions left a deep trace in the memory of the Europeans of those places. As a reward for the services rendered, Lusius Quietus was made governor of Judea.

For the pacification of Alexandria, Trajan took troops from Mesopotamia under the command of Marcius Turbo, who in 117 had already quelled the rebellion. To rebuild the damage caused there by the revolt, the Romans expropriated and confiscated all of the Jews’ goods and wealth. Marcius Turbo remained as governor of Egypt during a period of reconstitution of Roman authority. Lukuas, who was at that time in Alexandria, probably fled to Judea.

Throughout the Rebellion of the Diaspora, well over half a million Europeans were massacred, mainly those belonging to the noblest social strata of Cyrenaica, Cyprus, Egypt and Babylon: that is, the European people of these places, men, women and children who were at that time the aristocracy of the Eastern Mediterranean. Although thousands of Jews were put to the sword and the rebellion was ruthlessly crushed by Trajan, Lusius Quietus and Marcius Turbo, many Europeans were killed after suffering atrocious tortures.

Apocalypse for whites • VIII

by Evropa Soberana

 
The conquest of Pompey

This section will deal with the first direct intervention of the Roman authority on Jewish soil.

In Israel, on the death of Alexander Jannaeus (king of the Hasmonean dynasty, descendant of the Maccabees) in 76 BCE, his wife Salome Alexandra reigned as his successor. Unlike her husband—who, as a good pro-Sadducee, had severely repressed the Pharisees—Salome got on well with the Pharisee faction. When she died, her two sons, Hyrcanus II (associated with the Pharisees and supported by the Arab sheikh Aretas of Petra) and Aristobulus II (supported by the Sadducees) fought for power.

In 63 BCE, both Hasmoneans sought support from the Roman leader Pompey, whose victorious legions were already in Damascus after having deposed the last Macedonian king of Syria (the Seleucid Antigonus III) and now proposed to conquer Phoenicia and Judea, perhaps to incorporate them into the new Roman province of Syria. Pompey, who received money from both factions, finally decided in favour of Hyrcanus II, perhaps because the Pharisees represented the majority of the popular mass of Judea. Aristobulus II, refusing to accept the general’s decision, entrenched himself in Jerusalem with his men.

The Romans, therefore, besieged the capital. Aristobulus II and his followers held out for three months, while the Sadducee priests, in the temple, prayed and offered sacrifices to Yahweh. Taking advantage of the fact that on the Shabbat the Jews did not fight, the Romans undermined the walls of Jerusalem, after which they quickly penetrated the city, capturing Aristobulus and killing 12,000 Jews.[1]

Pompey himself entered the Temple of Jerusalem, curious to see the god of the Jews. Accustomed to seeing numerous temples of many different peoples, and educated in the European mentality according to which a god was to be represented in human form to receive the cult of mortals, he blinked in perplexity when he saw no statue, no relief, no idol, no image… only a candelabrum, vessels, a table of gold, two thousand talents of ‘sacred money’, spices and mountains of Torah scrolls.[2]

Pompey the Great

Did they not have god? Were the Jews atheists? Did they worship nothing? Money? Gold? A simple book, as if the soul, the feelings and the will of a people depended on an inert roll of paper? The confusion of the general, according to Flavius Josephus, must have been capitalised. The Roman had come across an abstract god.

For the Jewish mentality, Pompey committed a sacrilege, for he penetrated the most sacred precinct of the Temple, which only the High Priest could see. In addition, the legionaries made a sacrifice to their banners, ‘polluting’ the area again.

After the fall of Jerusalem, all the territory conquered by the Hasmonean or Maccabean dynasty was annexed by the Roman Empire. Hyrcanus II remained like governor of a district of Rome under the title of ethnarch, dominating everything that Rome was not annexed: that is to say, the territories of Galilee and Judea, that in future would pay taxes to Rome but would retain their independence. Hyrcanus was also made a High Priest, but in practice the power of Judea went to Antipater of Idumea, as a reward for having helped the Romans. Pompey annexed to Rome the most Hellenised areas of the Jewish territory, while Hyrcanus remained as a governor of a district of Rome until his death.

From the ethnic and cultural point of view, the Roman conquest foreshadowed new and profound changes in that area of conflict that is Near East. First of all, to the Jewish, Syrian, Arab and Greek ethnic strata a Roman aristocracy occupying a military character was going to be added.

For the Greeks, this was a source of joy: the decline of the Seleucid Empire had left them aside, and they also had Rome literally in their pocket since the Romans felt a deep and sincere admiration for the Hellenistic culture, not to mention that many of their rulers had a Greek education that predisposed them to be especially lenient with the Macedonian colonies.

Moreover, in Alexandria, it was to be expected that, in view of the disturbances with Jewry, the Romans would seize from the Jews the rights that Alexander the Great had granted them, thereby ceasing to be citizens on an equal footing with the Greeks, and the influence they exerted through trade and the accumulation of money would be uprooted.

For these reasons, it is not surprising that the Decapolis (set of Hellenised cities in the desert borders that also retained much autonomy, among which was Philadelphia, the current capital of Jordan, Amman), surrounded by Syrian tribes, Jews and Arabs—considered barbarians—received the Romans with open arms and began to count the years since the conquest of Pompey.

 
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[1] The figures of the dead given throughout the text come from the writings of Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War and Antiquities of the Jews, as well as of Cassius Dio’s History of Rome. Most likely they are inflated to magnify the importance of events, something common in history.

[2] According to the Alexandrian authors (rabid anti-Semites who believed that the Jews performed human sacrifices), Pompey freed in the temple a Greek prisoner who was about to be sacrificed to Jehovah.

Published in: on December 15, 2017 at 5:07 pm  Comments Off on Apocalypse for whites • VIII  
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